Policing the Communion Line

Not in My Parish

By Fr. Nonomen

You never know where God will surprise you.

The installation of Cardinal Joseph William Tobin of Newark, New Jersey / CNS photo

In the middle of a hot summer, while I was standing in the produce section at the local supermarket, a woman I had never met tapped me on the shoulder and introduced herself. She told me that she and her husband were not parishioners but had experienced an amazing Lenten journey at my parish. For the past two years, she said, they had fallen into a spiritual malaise. That began when the pastor of her own parish left the priesthood. He was a popular man, highly charismatic, and deeply spiritual. His unexpected departure brought to a head many issues in the church that she and her husband struggled with. Changes to their home parish also disoriented them. Looking for some fresh air, they had prayed their way through Lent with us and then joined us for the Easter Vigil. It was there, she said, that God gave her a gift: she watched as her former pastor and his new wife (who were never before at any of our Masses) joined the Communion line and received the Eucharist. “In that moment, I knew,” she said. “I was suddenly filled with a joyful, peaceful assurance that the church I love would weather the storms and issues that seem sometimes to tear it apart. Seeing Father Ed with his wife showed me how God is always doing something new! As they received Communion, I saw that there is room for all in Christ. And that has helped heal my heart.”

I walked away from this exchange with a bag of tomatoes and a grin on my face, thinking she doesn’t realize just how amazing the Communion line was that night. Besides Ed and his new wife, there were other Catholic priests and even a Protestant minister and her wife. Also, I saw a prominent local political leader, well known in the community and healing from a recent, very-public divorce. There were professional theologians and professional electricians. There were college students and middle-school students; the newly married and the recently widowed. It seemed that the depth and breadth of humanity was in the Communion line, all of their lives containing stories of hope and all of them, in that moment, drawn to one table, one altar, one Lord. I saw it. I sensed it. It was a foretaste of what liturgists call “the heavenly banquet.” I am so grateful that my new friend, the evangelizer in the produce department, saw it as well.

The people of the Kingdom are a diverse people, aware of their need and drawn to the God who welcomes all
As you might imagine, it didn’t take long for all these lofty thoughts of the Kingdom to come crashing back to earth. I thought of the diocesan administration and of how some might be extremely concerned about the “scandal” this sort of Communion line could cause. But as a participant and witness, it seemed to have the opposite effect, a healing effect. Of the hundreds who attended the Vigil that night, no one wrote a nasty letter of complaint, no unkind word was heard, not even so much as a passing sarcastic comment. Many noticed the same things I did that night and many were inspired.

How does this happen? To begin with, the Vigil Mass cannot be taken out of context. Throughout the year, the people of this parish make a deliberate effort to be hospitable and welcoming. That is especially the case for the Vigil, which is touted as the high point of the liturgical year. No one is checking “Valid Catholic” cards at the door, and no one feels a particular need to be a Communion Cop. We recognize that we’re all a bunch of needy sinful people, who are eager to make room for others at the Lord’s Table. Add to this a year-long, parish-wide emphasis on the religious education of adults, both through formal catechesis and in the way we run a picnic or a liturgy or a parish council. Education has a broadening effect, which hopefully trickles down to the heart. The wider the heart, the easier it is to see the working of God and, consequentially, the longer the Communion line.

The more intriguing question, perhaps, is not how but why this happened. I figure it to be a lesson in grace. At a time when elitism and intolerance have crept into so many facets of life, the Lord insists that the Kingdom of God will be otherwise and often surprises us with glimpses of it right here, right now. The people of the Kingdom are a richly diverse people, aware of their need and drawn to the God who welcomes all and lavishes grace on all, even that former priest, even that same-sex couple, even that unsuspecting cleric in the produce department who thought he was only going home with a bag of tomatoes.


By Father Vincent Treglio
It has been said that it is not easy to be a Christian in today’s world. There are so many things that pull us this way and that. Those values we grew up with seem today to be out dated. Society has changed greatly from what we recall when we were younger. Family values, which were so strong in the past seem all but gone. We might truly wonder where we are headed. I guess, we all have days when we reflect on what will happen to our society. We need only read the morning paper to get almost a feeling of doom. But once in a while we do run across someone or have some experience that tells us that all is not lost.
In the Letter to the Hebrews chapter 12 verse 1 we are reminded that we are surrounded by a ‘cloud of witnesses’, those who have gone before us in the faith. We might think that they had it easy because they lived in the ‘good old days’, but I’m sure that they had their share of trouble living up to the call they received God.
There is a litany of names recorded at the end of chapter 11 of Hebrews. People like Abraham, Able, Enoch, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Rahab, Gideon, Samson, David, Samuel and the many prophets of old, as well as those who came after them and followed the Lord and his call to discipleship, all had their share of trouble in living up to live lives of virtue in a society that pulled them to the worship of other gods, to living lives of sinfulness in a pagan world. These great ancient heroes surround us and stand before us to give us strength and inspiration.
In his commentary on the book of Hebrews, William Barclay wrote, “An actor would act with double intensity if he know that some famous dramatic master was watching him. An athlete would strive with double effort if he knew that a stadium of famous Olympic athletes were watching him. It is of the very essence of the Christian life that it is lived in the gaze of the heroes of the faith, who lived, suffered and died in their day and generation. How can a person avoid the struggle for greatness with an audience like that looking down upon him” (The St. Andrew Press, Edinburgh: 1976)
Yes, it is hard sometimes to be a Christian. But we have a great army who have gone before us to show us the way. The heroes of our Old and New Testaments cheer us on to victory. They are the ones who support us with their prayers and their stories. They are to ones who tell us that if we are willing to struggle and hold firm to what our faith calls us to, then a great reward awaits us in the joys of the Father’s kingdom.


And the Lord said, “GO!” and I said, “Who, me?” and God said, “Yes, you” and I said, “But I’m not ready yet, and there is company coming, and I can’t leave my kids; You know there is no one to take my place.” And God said, “You’re stalling.”

Again the Lord said, “Go!” and I said, “But I don’t want to.” And God said, “I didn’t ask if you wanted to.” And I said, “Listen, I’m not the kind of person to get involved in controversy. Besides, my family won’t like it, and what will the neighbors think!” and God said, “Baloney!”

And yet a third time the Lord said, “Go!” and I said, “Do I have to?” and God said, “Do you love me?” and I said, “Look, I’m scared. . .People are going to hate me. . .and cut me up into little pieces. . . I can’t take it all by myself.” And God said, “Where do you think I’ll be?”

And the Lord said, “Go!” and I sighed, “Here I am, send me!’

By Lois Hodrick

Good Friday Meditation


“Simon, Simon! Look, Satan has got his wish to sift you all like wheat; but I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail, and once you have recovered, you in your turn must strengthen your brothers.”
“Lord, (Peter said), I would be ready to go to prison with you, and to death. Jesus replied, ‘I tell you, Peter by the time the cock crows today, you will have denied three times that you know me.’” (LK 22: 34)
We know the rest of the story. After the Passover meal they went out to the Mount of Olives to sing the traditional psalms and songs. It was at this point that the mood became very heavy for Jesus knew in his heart that the time was approaching that he would be handed over to the of the authorities to be put on trial, a mock one at that, and given over to the Romans to be flogged and crucified.
Those who had sworn their allegiance all took off when the guards form the Temple arrived. Some ran so fast that the very cloths that cover them were left behind, as with John Mark who had on a sheet. Maybe the boasting the disciples made was due to too much wine at the Passover meal?? But whatever the reason, it was short lived.
Fear, my brothers and sisters, has a very powerful affect upon us. It can make us stronger that we ever thought we could be or make us turn tail and run for our lives. Fear make us forget the past or the future, for only the present is important; the immediate presence of danger that we come face to face with.
Peter, as well as the others, found himself in that situation and he FORGOT!
As we read in the Gospel of John, Peter and John follow the crowd back toward the Temple Mount. Peter hides himself in the shadows of his cloak and tries to warm himself at the charcoal fire in the courtyard. It was there that a someone pointed him out…and Peter was faced with his paralyzing fear.
The girl at the door noticed Peter and said, “Aren’t you another of that man’s disciples?” Peter said NO! Fear of being discovered took over. Peter FORGOT the first time he encountered Jesus. It was up on the lake of Galilee. Jesus was on the shore and said to Peter and his companions, “Children, have you caught anything?” No, they said. Jesus then said, “Through you nets to the other side of the boat,” and so they did. To their astonishment, their nets were filled to the breaking point. They had to call to their friends in another boat to come and help them with the catch. It was then that Peter through himself at the feet of Jesus and said, “. . . depart from me, Lord, I am a sinful man.” But Jesus said instead, follow me and I will make you a fisher of men.
Peter forgot the time at the wedding feast of Cana, and how, at the request of his mother, Jesus turned water into the best wine they had ever tasted. And let us not forget the time when in that deserted place, Jesus was able to feat 5,000 men, not to mention the women and the children.
Not much later, as Peter stood by the fire warming himself, another said, “Are you not one of that man’s followers?” Peter’s answer was again a resounding NO. Peter FORGOT.
Yes, Peter forget the time in that little town on Nain. Jesus and the disciples had just entered the town as the only son of a widow was being carried out and the town followed in procession. Jesus approached the litter and place his hand upon it and stopped them. Then to the young man, Jesus said ‘arise’. Jesus then gave the young man back to his mother. And then there was the time, that Jesus took pity on the ten lepers and heal them, and that only one, a Samaritan, came back to give thanks. And should we forget the time Peter and the others were there when the daughter of Jairus, Temple official, was very ill. Jairus asked Jesus to come and make her better. As Jairus pleaded members of his household came and said that the little girl died. Jesus took Peter, James and John with him into the house and said to the child ‘Talitha Kum!’ Which means, “little girl, get up.” And then he said, “give her something to eat.”
Peter also forgot that even before they went of the Jairus’ house, an old woman who suffered from hemorrhages most of her life was in the crowd and came up behind Jesus and said in her heart, “if only I touch the tassel of his garment, I will get better. . .” and so she was.
The night was chilly and Peter wanted to get closer to the fire. Once again, another spoke up, one who just who happened to be a relative of Malcus, the man whose ear Peter had cut with a sword. “Did I not see you in the garden with him?” Again, Peter started to curse and he swore he did not know the man.
Peter FORGOT. Yes, fear again got the hold of him and made him forget when Jesus and the others got word that, their good friend, Lazarus had died. Peter did not remember when they went to the town of Bethany, Jesus had encountered Mary as they entered the town. Peter may not have been close enough to Mary to hear what they said….as Jesus assured Mary that her brother would rise again. . . “Yes, Lord, I know he will, in the resurrection of the Just.” Peter did may not have heard what Jesus said to her…. Mary, I AM THE RESURRECTION.”
Fear made Peter to forget what took place afterward when they went to the place where Lazarus had been buried four days earlier. How Jesus, filled with emotions cried for his friend and then ordered the stone moved away and call into the tomb, “Lazarus, come out”. And to the astonishment of all, the dead man came out at which Jesus ordered, “Untie him and let him go free.”
It was at this point, when Peter coursed and swore for the third time that he did not know this man Jesus, that he raised his head, just as they were taking Jesus into the inner court to be judged, and their eyes met. There was no condemnation in the Lords gaze, only understanding, forgiveness and love. And off in the distance, in the chilly gray of dawn a cock crowed. A cock crowed announcing the dawn of a new day. Yes, their eyes met, and Peter REMEMBERED! And he when out and wept bitterly.

Becoming a Sunday Crybaby: How I rediscovered the beauty of Mass

by Valerie Schultz – Valerie Schultz is a freelance writer, a columnist for The Bakersfield Californian and the author of Closer: Musings on Intimacy, Marriage, and God. She and her husband Randy have four daughters.


Sunday Mass is in my DNA. This was not always a given. For a brief time, mostly during my high school and undergrad years, I did not go to Mass. I rebelled. I flirted with atheism. What I saw in the church was at worst hypocrisy, at best rote boredom. After I got my driver’s license, I would leave the house with my younger sister on Sunday mornings. My mother thought I was taking her to Mass. We usually went to the park instead, only stopping by the church to snag a bulletin as evidence.

Before I flew to Europe to spend a college semester in Rome, my mother made me go to confession, in case the plane crashed. With the brashness of youth, I told the priest that I was there under duress, and that I could not think of anything I wanted to share with him. He was wise enough to have a conversation with me about the gift of travel rather than try to convert me.

A semester in Europe with a Eurail pass meant that I immersed myself in history. I visited churches and chapels and cathedrals. I walked through the piazza in front of the Vatican almost daily. I marveled at the Sistine Chapel. I took a tour of Chartres. I went to an organ recital in Notre Dame. But I never once, in the midst of all that Catholicism, went to Mass. I regret that now, of course. At the time, I thought it was not for me.

Mass found me in my senior year of college at a Catholic university, and I have been going back ever since. I finally got it: the ritual, the communal celebration, the Eucharist, the palpable presence of God. I have not always been purely concentrated on worship; while my children were growing up, I often was more concerned that they behave in church than I was in tune with the Mass. I was a Director of Religious Education at a parish for eight years and often had to orchestrate the participation of students in children or youth Masses. I loved Mass, but it was part of my job. I was a go-to person in church, always busy, never still.

Now, however, I usually go to Mass alone. I am anonymous in many different parishes, as there is not one I call home. I usually sit in a pew that I think of as “All the Single Ladies,” as we seek each other out and make room for each other without exchanging a word. I think we spot each other by the secret signal of fanning ourselves with the bulletin, even in cold weather.

Each Sunday, I usually find myself in tears at some point before the final blessing. You might say it’s hormonal. Or the deep, satisfying breath that is only taken when one is at rest in a pew, where there is time to think, to reflect, to slow down, to let go. Or the reverence that Mass instills in me. Maybe it is all of the above. But there is something every Sunday that so deeply touches my nomadic Catholic soul that my eyes fill with tears. Sometimes I choke up. It may be a choir that is so full of joy that their music makes me cry. It may be the incense rising in a holy cloud as we in the pews are blessed. It may be an Irish hymn that reminds me of my mother, who died this year. It may be a family of hopeful faces, whose three young children are baptized during the Mass. Or last week: A little boy who had lost his father that very week led us in the “Our Father,” his voice sweet and clear. How could these things not make me cry?

I imagine I look like the odd old bird, sniffling during the homily, blowing her nose at the offertory or turning a tear-stained beak to wish a stranger peace. It’s fine. I am a Sunday crybaby, the lady my own children would have felt sorry for, the crone who must have experienced some terrible sadness to make her weep so openly. But I am not usually sad. I am just moved to witness the Spirit so alive and so well. I am an open heart, so grateful to be so loved by God. I might have come in wounded, but during Mass I am healed and made whole by the risen Jesus, who accepts me as I am and sends me back out there for the week.

And I am not alone in being a Sunday crybaby. A few months ago, I went to Mass with my brother-in-law. The Communion song was “Be Not Afraid,” and as usual, I had to stop singing at the point when the song overwhelmed me and I could no longer get out the words. Then I noticed: he had stopped singing. There was a tear on his cheek, too. “That song gets me,” he said, a bit embarrassed. I just smiled. I know, brother. I know.


Lent is a solemn religious observance in the liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later the day before Holy Thursday. The purpose of this special time is for the faithful through prayer, doing penance, almsgiving and atonement to be more closely united to Christ Jesus. This time is observed in Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist and Catholic churches.

Lent is highlighted in the annual commemoration of Holy Week, marking the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus.

During Lent, many Christians commit to fasting or giving up certain types of luxuries as a form of reconciliation. Many adherents also add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such a reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves closer to the presence of God.

some humor

The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ’s carrying the cross and of his execution, are often observed. Many Catholic and some other Christian communities remove flowers from their altars and other elaborate symbols are likewise removed.

Lent is traditionally described as lasting for forty days to mark the forty days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, as recorded in the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, before beginning his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan – the prince of darkness and evil.

San Damiano Cross

Copy now in the original position inside the Church of San Damiano

The San Damiano Cross is the large Romanesque rood cross before which St. Francis of Assisi was praying when he is said to have received the commission from the Lord to rebuild the Church. It now hangs in the Basilica of Saint Clare (Basilica di Santa Chiara) in Assisi, Italy, with a replica in its original position in the church of San Damiano nearby. Franciscans cherish this cross as the symbol of their mission from God. The cross is a crucifix of a type sometimes called an icon cross because in addition to the main figure of the Christ, it contains images of other saints and people related to the incident of Christ’s crucifixion. The tradition of such painted crucifixes began in the Eastern Church and possibly reached Italy via Montenegro and Croatia.

The San Damiano Cross was one of a number of crosses painted with similar figures during the 12th century in Umbria. The name of the painter is unknown, but it was made around the year 1100. The purpose of an icon cross was to teach the meaning of the event depicted and thereby strengthen the faith of the people. The Byzantine style was common in Italy before Cimabue and Giotto.

When the Poor Clares moved from San Damiano to the Basilica of Santa Chiara in 1257, they took the original San Damiano Cross with them and still guard it with great solicitude. It now hangs in the Basilica over the altar of the Chapel of the Crucifix – a reconstruction of the Church of Saint George, which was torn down to build the Basilica. The crucifix hanging over the altar of the ancient church of San Damiano is a copy. All Franciscans cherish this cross as the symbol of their mission from God to commit our lives and resources to renew and rebuild the Church through the power of Christ.


The San Damiano Cross

Jesus Christ is represented upright in full stature while the surrounding figures are smaller. The bright white of his body contrasts with the dark red and black around it and accentuates the prominence of Jesus. This representation contrasts with the regal Christ portrayed on the cross in earlier centuries and the suffering, dying, crucified Christ depicted generally throughout the Church since the beginning of the 14th century. Above the head of Christ is the inscription in Latin: Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.

The next largest figures are five witnesses of the crucifixion. On the left side are the Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist. On the right side are Mary Magdalene, Mary, Mother of James, and the centurion who in Matthew’s Gospel account asks Christ to heal his servant, who is also depicted on the cross on the shoulder of the centurion (Matthew 8:5-13). Both Mary and Mary Magdalene have their hands placed on their cheeks to reflect extreme grief and anguish. The first four witnesses are saints and are therefore represented with halos. Their names are written beneath their pictures.

Two smaller figures are located in the corners with the witnesses. On the lower left is Longinus the traditional name of the Roman soldier who pierced the side of Jesus with a lance. He is represented here as holding the lance and looking up at Jesus. The blood running down the right arm of Jesus begins at the elbow and drips straight down and will land on the upturned face of Longinus. In the lower right is Stephaton, the traditional name for the soldier who offered Jesus the sponge soaked in vinegar wine.

Peering over the left shoulder of the centurion is a small face. A close look reveals the tops of the heads of three others beside him. This represents the centurion’s son who was healed by Jesus and the rest of his family to show that “he and his whole household believed” (John 4:45-54).

Six angels are represented as marvelling over the event of the crucifixion. They are positioned at both ends of the crossbar. Their hand gestures indicate they are discussing this wondrous event of the death and calling us to marvel with them.

At the foot of the cross there is a damaged picture of six figures, two of whom are represented with halos. In accordance with the traditions of the day, these six are the patrons of Umbria: St. Damian, St. Michael, St. Rufino, St. John the Baptist, St. Peter and St. Paul. On the top of the cross, one sees Jesus now fully clothed in his regal garments and carrying the cross as a triumphant sceptre. He is climbing out of the tomb and into the heavenly courts. Ten angels are crowded around, five of whom have their hands extended in a welcoming gesture to Jesus, who himself has his hand raised in the form of a greeting,

At the very top of the cross is the Hand of God with two fingers extended. This is to be understood as the blessing of God the Father on the sacrifice of his Son. On the right side of the picture next to the left calf of Jesus, there is a small figure of a fowl. Some art historians have interpreted it to be a rooster, representing the sign of Jesus’ denial by Peter, mentioned in all four Gospel accounts. Other commentators see it as a peacock, a frequent symbol of immortality in Early Christian art. Along the lower right side of the shaft, there is a small animal, possibly a cat.

Meaning of the Tau cross

What is the meaning of the Tau cross, so loved by St. Francis?

At least once in your life you’ll be asked about the meaning of the cross, usually made of wood, which is shaped like a “T” and is often worn by Franciscan friars. With the help of the portal, St. Francis Patron of Italy, we sought to understand the meaning of the Tau.

Ancient Origin

Tau is the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet and was used symbolically in the Old Testament. It was already spoken of in the Book of Ezekiel: “The Lord said to him, ‘Go through the city, through Jerusalem, and put a mark upon the foreheads of the men who sigh and groan over the abominations… (Ez. 9:4). The Tau is the sign placed upon the foreheads of the poor of Israel, it saves them from extermination.

It was then adopted by the very first Christians, for a twofold reason:

    As the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, it prophesied the Last Day and had the same function as the Greek letter Omega as it appears in the Book of Revelation: “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give water without price from the fountain of the water of life … I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (Rev. 21:6;22:13).
    The Christians adopted the Tau, because its form reminded them of the Cross on which Christ was immolated for the salvation of the world.

What it is not

The Tau is not a magic amulet.
It is not a fetish, much less a trinket.
Nor is it a charm that is hung only because it “brings good luck.”

What is it a sign of?

It is a concrete sign of Christian devotion, but above all it is a sign of the commitment of one’s life to following the poor and crucified Christ.
It is a sign of the awareness of a Christian, i.e. of a child of God, a child who has escaped danger, of one who has been redeemed and saved. It is a sign of powerful protection against evil (Ez.9,6).
It is a sign willed by God for me, it is a divine privilege (Rev.9:4; Rev.7:1-4; Rev.14:1).
It is the sign of the Lord’s redeemed, of the unblemished, of those who trust Him, of those who see themselves as beloved children and who know that they are precious to God (Ez.9:6).
It is a symbol of the dignity of the children of God, for it is the Cross that held Christ.
It is a sign that reminds me that I too must be strong in time of trial, ready to obey the Father, and docile in submission, as Jesus was docile before the Father’s will.

“Look at the crucifix and it will teach you everything…”

St. Francis and the cross
Because of the Tau’s resemblance to the cross, this sign was very dear to St. Francis of Assisi, so much so that it occupied an important place in his life as well as his gestures. In him the ancient prophetic sign was actualized, regained its saving power and expressed the beatitude of poverty, which is an essential element of the Franciscan way of life.
“Whenever necessity or charity required, St. Francis marked with this seal the letters he sent” (FF 980); “He began all of his actions with it” (FF 1347). The Tau was therefore the sign dearest to Francis, his seal, the telltale sign of a deep spiritual conviction that the salvation of every man is only in the Cross of Christ.
Thus the Tau, which is backed by a solid biblical and Christian tradition, was received by St. Francis for its spiritual value. The Saint of Assisi took hold of this sign in a manner so complete and intense that, at the end of his life and through the stigmata impressed in his flesh he became the living image of the Tau that he had so often contemplated, drawn, and especially loved.

Why wood?

Wood is a very poor and flexible material, and the children of God are called to live simply and in poverty of spirit (Mt.5:3). Wood is a material that is easily crafted, and the baptized Christian too must be shaped in everyday life by the Word of God, in order to be a herald of the Gospel.

Some history of CACINA

The Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA)

Bishop Stephen M. Corradi-Scarella brought the Catholic Apostolic Church to the United States in 1949, establishing the first diocese of what would later become both CACINA and the Western Orthodox Church in America (WOCA) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Bishop Corradi-Scarella fell asleep in the Lord November 13, 1979.

During the 1950’s, 1960’s and 1970’s the Church that is today CACINA underwent several adjustments in identity. Communication with the Brazilian Church was lost and the Church variously identified itself with the Old Catholic movement and Independent Orthodoxy. Communication was restored with Brazil in the 1970’s. In the 1980’s a dispute developed within the Catholic Apostolic Church over whether to return to Western Latin Rite theology or retain an Orthodox approach. As a result, two bodies were formed, CACINA, following Latin Rite theology, and the Western Orthodox Church in America (WOCA) following a westernized Orthodox theology. The separation was amicable and cordial relations are retained today. WOCA and CACINA are children of common fathers-in-faith (Duarte-Costa and Corradi-Scarella). The clergy and people of WOCA are our special brothers and sisters in Christ and are held by CACINA in the highest esteem and fraternal affection.

Bishop Francis Jerome Joachim Ladd became the second Primate of CACINA, succeeding Bishop Corradi-Scarella to that title. Upon retiring he resigned as primate, and relocated to Mexico. There he worked with our sister Church, the Catholic Apostolic Church of Mexico, until he fell asleep in the Lord November 5, 1997.

Bishops Justo Gonzalez and Donald Buttenbusch both held the office of Primate of CACINA, becoming the third and fourth Primates respectively. Both are still living but have left active ministry within CACINA.

Presiding Bishop Ronald

In a note of some interest, Bishop Salmeo Ferraz, a former Roman Catholic Priest whom Bishop Duarte-Costa consecrated a bishop of ICAB in 1945, eventually returned to Roman Catholic obedience under John PP XXIII. Though married, Bishop Ferraz was made Coadjutor Bishop of Sao Paulo, Brazil for the Roman Catholic Church, attended the Second Vatican Council, and addressed the Council during its sessions. He was never reconsecrated by Rome, even conditionally, and is buried with full honors as a bishop of the Roman Church. By accepting Bishop Ferraz back into the Roman Church without re-consecration, the Roman Catholic Church affirmed, de facto, the Sacramental validity of Catholic Apostolic Orders.

CACINA participates in sub-conditione consecrations of its bishops for only one reason: when there is a doubt as to the validity or regularity of the original consecration of a bishop seeking incardination into CACINA.

CACINA does provide consecration, ad cautelam (as a precaution), so as to pass the Duarte-Costa succession to otherwise validly consecrated bishops being incardinated into CACINA who may not possess it. In this latter case, the purpose is to assure a consistent lineage, for the future of CACINA, through a single source: Duarte-Costa.

Bishop Carlos Duarte

Saint Charles of Brazil (Bishop Carlos Duarte-Costa, 1888-1961) was ordained a Roman Catholic Priest on April 1, 1911. He was consecrated to be the Roman Catholic Diocesan Bishop of Botucatu, Brazil, on December 8, 1924, and served in that office until certain views he expressed about treatment of Brazil’s poor, by both the civil government and the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil, caused his removal from the Diocese of Botucatu. Bishop Duarte-Costa was subsequently named Titular Bishop of Maura by the late Bishop of Rome, Pius PP XII.

duarte costaBishop Duarte-Costa’s criticisms of the fascist regime and oligarchy of Brazil in the 1930’s and 1940’s earned him repeated troubles and prison. In 1944 he was imprisoned by the dictator and remained there until pressure from President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill and others caused his release. Of interest is the apparent lack of active protest against this unjust imprisonment by either the Vatican or the other bishops of Brazil.

Bishop Duarte-Costa’s criticisms of the Vatican, particularly about Vatican foreign policy during and following World War II toward Nazi Germany, were not well received at the Vatican, and he was eventually separated from the Roman Church by Pius PP XII. This action was taken only after his public denunciations that the Vatican Secretariat of State was issuing Vatican Passports to some high ranking former Nazi officials, who were then fleeing to South America, from the Allies.

Bishop Duarte-Costa was a strong advocate in the 1930’s for reform of the Roman Church; espousing many of the key positions that the Second Vatican Council would, thirty-five years later, enact. His positions included a more pastoral approach to divorce, challenged mandatory celibacy for the clergy, and rejected abuses of papal power, including the concept of Papal Infallibility, which the Bishop considered a misguided and false dogma.

Bishop Duarte-Costa was involuntarily separated from the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church on July 6, 1945. This schism was, it should be noted, an act by the Roman Pontiff and was not initiated by Bishop Duarte-Costa. Duarte-Costa immediately established the independent Igreja Catolica Apostolica Brasileira (ICAB) on that same date which he led until his death in 1961.

After its founding, ICAB attracted inquiries from other Catholic communities who, while wishing to retain the Catholic faith, felt that the governance of the Roman Catholic Church had failed to address the modern world and was not meeting their needs. Bishop Duarte-Costa worked to establish groups in various countries. According to the ancient practice of the early Church, and still in practice today by Eastern Orthodox communions, such Catholic Apostolic Churches exist in their countries as autonomous and independent Particular Churches. In addition to ICAB in Brazil, there are sister apostolic branches in several other countries in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, the Pacific and in Asia. While bound by common origin from Bishop Duarte-Costa’s apostolic line, each National Catholic Apostolic Church is completely independent and self governing. Each revealing a unique national identity or charism.

The Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA) has been, since its founding, and remains today, such an independent National Catholic Apostolic Church in the United States and Canada. CACINA is honored to share this heritage with this family of Christians. They are our brothers and sisters in Christ whom we love and honor as children of a common Father in heaven and father on earth: St. Charles of Brazil.

From such a history one could reasonably believe that there was/is great animosity toward the Roman Catholic Church felt by both Bishop Duarte-Costa and his spiritual children. Nothing could be further from the truth. The events recorded here are history. They happened and they caused much suffering. Nevertheless, the Roman Catholic Church, ancient of days, is one of the foundation stones of the Christian Faith. To hold animosity toward her, her leaders, or her people would be to hold such feelings for Christ, for we are all one in Him.

The Bishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) occupies a unique position in the Christian world. He can be a voice for peace among peoples, a teacher, a defender of the right and promoter of justice, and a leader. It is to this role that Christ called St. Peter. He did not call Peter to be a monarch, or a head of state, but, like Jesus Himself, to be a servant. That the Church of Rome contributed to the persecution of St. Charles, and later ICAB, is reprehensible and, yet cannot be forever a source of discord.

As with all our Christian brothers and sisters, CACINA, holds the Bishop of Rome, currently Franciscus, and all the People of God of the Roman Catholic Church in deep fraternal affection and respect. In this we obey our Master who taught us, “By this shall all people know you are my disciples, when you love one another as I have loved you…”

Meet our bishop

Meet our bishop

Bishop Ronald Stephens visited our Parish on Saturday 28th and Sunday 29th of January

Bishop Ronald

Bishop Ronald Stephens

Bishop Ron Stephens was ordained late in life after a busy career of raising a family, teaching, administrating schools, directing plays and being involved in parish work. Originally from Windsor, Ontario, he has been a United States since 2000. He belongs to the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America with active parishes predominately on the east coast of the United States. After ordination he was appointed pastor of St. Andrew the Apostle Parish in Warrenton, VA. In the United States he has taught and administered at all levels from Grade 1 to University, and continues to teach on a modified schedule. Since none of these clergy are paid, they all need to have incomes from some other source - an idea of Bishop Carlos Duarte-Costa, the founder, who felt that his priests should be closer to the people and leading lives similar to theirs - meaning that they have day jobs to support themselves. Other differences can be found on the CACINA website.


Bishop Stephens

In 2013 Fr. Ron became Bishop Ron and is now the auxiliary Bishop of Holy Trinity Diocese. His love of teaching inspires what he tries to do in his weekly homilies, many of which he has shared with other priests and lay persons around the globe, and has received excellent feedback. The idea for a series of books - one for each of the Cycles of the Church Year - has become a reality with the first volume of Teaching the Sundays, Year A. He is presently at work on the other two volumes.

Books by Bishop Ron

RONALD WILBERT STEPHENS was consecrated Bishop in the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America on September 14, 2013 at the Saviour Lutheran Church in Warrenton, Virginia by Anthony Francis Santore, Diocesan Bishop, Diocese of the Holy Trinity and Presiding Bishop of the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America assisted by Carl Gregory Purvensas-Smith, Auxiliary Bishop, Diocese of the Holy Trinity of the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America and Willard Earl Schultz, Presiding Bishop Emeritus of the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America.

Link to the web site of CACINA